Online Book Promotion Made Easy

If you’ve done the book launch, press releases, newspaper interviews, library talks, store signings, school visits, etc, and you’re wondering what to do next, then you might like to try promoting your book online.

There are millions of websites and blogs aimed at book readers, writers, teachers, children, teenagers, and so on. And there will be hundreds (perhaps thousands) more that cater for each of the subjects and issues covered in your book.

You can think of each of these websites and blogs as a “virtual venue” where you can promote your book.

There are two main ways of doing this:

1. Interview: the owner of the website or blog (or one of their staff) emails you a set of questions and you email back your responses. Their questions and your (possibly edited) answers are then posted on their website. They might also include it, or promote it, in their newsletter or ezine if they have one, or invite their subscribers to submit questions for you.

2. Articles: you arrange to write one or more short articles, which will be published on their website, or in their newsletter or ezine.

At the end of each interview or article you can mention your book and where to buy it. That’s your payback. You shouldn’t expect any payment for the interview or article itself – you’re doing it for the publicity not the money.

Start by making a list of all the things your book covers – the main subject, sub-topics, locations, issues, angles, and so on. Also list the things that you researched while writing the book, even if they didn’t make it into the final text. And there will be other topics that you now have some inside knowledge of – writing books, finding an agent or publisher, perhaps self-publishing, finding and working with a cover artist, giving talks, book signings, and so on. You’ll probably be surprised at just how big your final list is.

There will be a staggering number of websites and blogs that cover each of these topics. And many of these virtual venues will be looking for new material. So use your favorite search engine to search for each topic on your list.

You’ll probably end up with millions of results for each topic. Look at the first page or two of results and choose a few websites that seem to be the most relevant. Then approach the site owners by email to see if they’d like to interview you or have you write an article for them on a topic that’s relevant to their site.

Keep a record of the sites you’ve approached and their response (if any). If some of the bigger sites don’t respond, try again a week or two later, and maybe again a week or two after that. You might even consider contacting them by phone or post rather than email. Don’t give up on those big sites until they give you a definite “Yes” or “No” – because they probably get thousands of visitors. Imagine a book signing event in the real world where thousands of people turned up! You don’t want an opportunity like that to slip away just because the site owner was busy and ignored your email.

There are several big advantages to online book promotion, compared to attending promotional events in the real world:

1. There’s no traveling – this will save you huge amounts of time and money.
2. You’ll never run out of venues – just move on to the next page of search results or try the next topic on your list.
3. You can cover multiple venues in one day.
4. You can cover a much wider area – the whole world in fact.
5. Even the smallest online venue will usually have a much larger audience than a single book signing event in the real world.
6. Your article or interview will usually remain online and go on generating sales for years afterward.
7. You don’t have to have a great speaking voice or be able to come up with instant responses.

Once you’ve done a few of these articles or interviews it will get much easier as you can keep recycling the same basic responses and ideas, with just a few tweaks as necessary.

But just as no two talks or interviews in the real world are ever exactly the same, you should aim to make every online event slightly different too. Try to tailor what you say to suit each site’s style and readership. It will take a little time to do each one properly, but think about how much time you’d spend on such an event (preparing, traveling and presenting it) in the real world. You’ll be able to do the online event in a fraction of that time, and probably achieve significantly better results – without ever leaving your desk.

Planning Your Book Promotion

With more than 1 million new books published each year, every book needs help to find its market. Part of your job as an author is to market and promote your book.

Book marketing involves:

* Defining your reader

What does your book offer readers? What distinguishes your book from others on the topic? Who would read your book?

* Reaching your potential reader

Where are your potential readers? What magazines and newspapers do they read, where do they shop, which blogs do they visit, what television programs do they watch, which radio programs and podcasts do they listen to, and what social media sites do they frequent?

* Developing a strategy to convince your potential readership to buy your book

The three main components of book marketing are advertising, promotions, and publicity. Advertising is expensive and not particularly effective for selling books. Promotions – such as discounts, promotional materials (postcards, bookmarks, etc.), and co-op funds offered to booksellers – are provided by your publisher if your book is traditionally published. If you are self-published, promotions are not essential for your marketing plan. Publicity is the most effective and least expensive form of book marketing.

Publicity – obtaining media coverage for your book – is like free advertising. It adds legitimacy by way of a third-party endorsing your book. Garnering the right media coverage can have a valuable impact on book sales. Here are seven ways to begin to effectively plan publicity for your book:

1. Stay aware of current events to determine how your topic may be relevant and think of ways to pitch print, television, radio, and online media
2. Watch talk shows and news programs to determine how your book may appeal to a show’s producer
3. Research publications and newspapers you can approach to author articles or a column
4. Listen to radio programs (online and offline) and podcasts – to learn which hosts or shows may be interested in your subject or expertise
5. Locate blogs that are synergistic with your topic and begin to comment on posts and create a relationship with the blogger
6. Join LinkedIn, FaceBook, and Twitter groups that your potentials readers follow and begin to participate in the discussion and offer advice based on your expertise and subject matter
7. Make a list of print media that may be interested in excerpts (such as Top 10 lists or questionnaires) from your book


1. Develop your book publicity strategy
2. Select one item from your plan and implement it this week!

You may reprint this article as long as you include all of the following information:

Laura Cross is a business strategist, author, and professional ghostwriter. She provides business, publishing, and platform strategies to help entrepreneurs get known as the go-to experts in their field, become published authors, attract high-paying clients, garner major media, and earn more money with less effort by packaging their expertise. Grab a copy of the Free Audio CD “How to Establish Your Expertise, Become a Published Author, and Leverage Your Knowledge for More Profits, More Prospects, and Major Media” at [].

Books Promotion in the Media

Many new authors, excited and enthusiastic about promoting their book, will sometimes approach everyone in the media. This is the wrong way to go about book promotion. Keep in mind that people in them media receive numerous calls and media releases every day, and your book is not as important to them as it is to you.

Instead of starting your book promotion by sending a media release to everyone you can find, try this strategy:

Research the publication

Understand the publication you are contacting. Who are they? Why would they be interested in your book? Make sure that the topic of your book is suitable for the publication. At the least, understand who you are contacting them and why they should talk to you.

Get a contact name

Before you contact a specific media outlet, it helps to have a contact name. This may be an editor or producer, depending on the media type. These are the people that make decisions about the content of their publication or program. If you don’t know who to contact, it is likely that your ideas for book promotion will not reach the right people.

Give them a call

Before calling your contact, be sure you have your ‘elevator pitch’ ready. This is a 20 second or less speech where you outline your angle and ask for further action. Keep in mind that you may have to go through three or four people to get results.

Reacting to their response

If they say ‘yes’, ask what further information they may need from you, and arrange a more detailed interview. Now is the time to send your media release. If they reject your proposal, ask them for feedback. You may be able to send information to change their mind. If not, take their feedback into account going forward. If they are hesitant, ask them what information they would need in order to decide. Also offer to send them your media release. Book promotion in the media is all about convincing media outlets to run a story on you and your book.

Follow up

Once you have sent your media release, wait 48 hours and then contact them by phone to confirm that they have received it. Don’t forget to ask whether they need further information, and if possible add a piece of new and interesting information that was not mentioned in the release.

When approaching the media for your book promotion, you must do your research. Once you have a contact name, give them a call to pitch your story, and then send a media release with further information. Giving them a call before forwarding your media release is one way to increase your success, because editors and producers receive hundreds of releases every day.

The Secret to Internet Book Promotion

When many novice promoters think of internet marketing, they believe it’s all about putting up a good web site and then driving traffic to it using banner ads or a Google AdWords campaign. Sure, that’s one way to promote your books online. But it’s one of the least effective, in my opinion.

Another line of faulty reasoning is thinking that online book promotion is about search engine optimization (SEO). If only you did well in search results, you’re worries would be over. It’s true that putting basic SEO principles into practice can be helpful. But it’s still not the ultimate solution.

Key: The best way to promote and sell your books online — based on my many years of internet experience — is thinking outside your web site. Make no mistake, you need an attractive and well-organized site (and I’ll cover my top tips in that area soon). But to make a real impact as an author, you need much more than a good web site.

You Need a Web Presence!

But what do I mean by “presence”? You have a strong presence online when a growing number of people who have an interest in your topic or genre keep finding you in the places where they spend time online.

Sure, doing well in Google searches for your ideal words and phrases is one important part of having an Internet presence. But there’s so much more to it. Having a Web presence also means that your articles and sample chapters appear on prominent sites that cater to your subject matter. It means your name keeps popping up on active discussion forums related to your topic.

You also expand your presence when people find you on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, and any number of other social networking sites. It grows when people who subscribe to your email newsletter forward your latest message to their friends. You further establish your presence by starting your own blog, while also making comments on other people’s blogs and podcasts. It expands again when you do text, audio and video interviews online.

Bottom line: You set yourself up for success by making sure you can be found in multiple places where your ideal reader, buyer and fan hangs out online.

That’s what I mean by developing a Web presence!

Book Promotion and Book Marketing With Online Book Reviews

Book promotion used to be all about book tours and book reviews in print media. These days the reviews that count are not all in the print media. They’re mostly on online bookstores, especially the Amazon bookstore community.

Amazon has become so powerful that authors will invest scarce resources to get reviewed there. Many authors have false beliefs about what it takes to get an online book review. It’s actually quite simple and straightforward.

As a prolific reviewer and a published author, I have experienced the process and have some tips to share with authors who want to make online reviews a key part of their book promotion.

First, I am horrified to learn that authors pay freelancers and agencies to write reviews for them. This is a huge waste of money. Instead, use your budget to send review copies to the most prolific reviewers in your genre. Read the reviewer’s past reviews to discover his or her tastes. For example, if you have a book on parenting newborn babies, look at other books on this topic. Notice which reviewers seem genuinely interested. They’ll probably be happy to review your book, too.

Anyway, one or two great reviews will not save your book. Even if one or two reviewers think your book ranks up there with War and Peace and the top-selling Stephen King novel, they can’t save your book. It’s the cumulative ratings that create viral marketing for your book.

Do not ask reviewers to write a review based on one chapter or a pdf version of the book. Send a hard copy of the whole book.

Once a reviewer agrees to consider reviewing your book, move on to your next marketing step. Do not hound the reviewer. Most prolific reviewers have backlog of books in the “To Review” pile. Some reviewers will choose not to review a book (especially one from a self-published author or small press) if they don’t like the book. They reason that it’s going nowhere,so why add to the author’s pain?

And you cannot complain about your review. Believe it or not, the most convincing reviews are balanced. The puffy reviews are not taken seriously. Online readers are smart and their authenticity radar is finely-tuned.

Do not spend a lot of money on packaging. Skip the gold wrapping paper, ribbons and glossy flyers. I can’t imagine how they would influence a reviewer.

In fact, the best way to get a handful of 4-star and 5-star reviews is to (drum roll, please!) write a good book. Nothing will compensate for a bad book, even if you somehow convince your friends and family to write glowing reviews. The online book community will pick up vibes from those reviews and you may be worse off. Readers actually complain, “The first 20 reviews look like they came from the author’s mother.”

You may be able to blast your way to best seller status with a big campaign. But you won’t get authentic five-star reviews unless your book truly earns them.

Book Promotion – The Foundation

Every author has thought it, said it, and heard it: promotion is the roll-up-your-sleeves, and dig-in part of writing. It’s the much more difficult and time consuming aspect of writing that every author needs to become involved with… if he wants to sell his books.

To actually sell a book, you need to have a quality product. This is the bare-bottom, first rung of book promotion… the foundation.

The Foundation – Create a Quality Product

The very first step in book promotion is to create a quality product. Hopefully, you noticed I said create a quality product, not just a good story. What this means is that all aspects of your book need to be top notch.

A. The Story

To start at the very beginning, the first factor to be dealt with is to be sure your story has all the essential elements. According to Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, there are five major elements of a story: characters, setting, plot, point of view, and theme.

All the elements of a story should complement each other, should move each other forward, draw the reader in, and end with a satisfying conclusion. They should work together to create a story that will be remembered.

Suppose your story is action packed and plot driven, but it lacks believable and sympathetic characters, it will fall short. The same holds true if you have a believable and sympathetic character, but the story lacks movement. Again, it will be lacking. As with all things in life balance is necessary, the same holds true when writing a story.

B. Join a Critique Group

Yes, this is part of creating a quality story. Even experienced authors depend on the unique perspective and extra eyes that each critique member provides. They will help find: grammatical errors, holes in your story, unclear sentences and paragraphs, overuse of particular words, and weak verbs, among other elements.

They will also provide guidance and suggestions.

C. Editing

Yes, again, this is a necessary step to take to ensure your manuscript is in the best shape possible before it becomes a book. Look for an experienced and qualified editor to help tweak your manuscript. But, before you send it off to be edited, self-edit it first. There are a number of articles out there in cyberspace on self-editing. Take the time and read a few, then go over your manuscript.

D. Cover and Design

This step is more relevant to those who decide to self-publish, or use a Print-on-Demand (POD). The cover is the first impression a reader will usually have of your book, next is the interior design. These aspects are just as important as the story itself. I’m sure you’re familiar with the expression that you only get one shot at making a good first impression. Well, you can relate that to your book cover.

Don’t skimp or time, effort, or money when coming up with your book’s cover and design.

Tip: If you are writing a children’s book, do not do your own illustrations unless you’re a professional illustrator.

Online Book Promotion Tip – Think Narrow, Not Wide

It’s a big world out there — especially on the Internet. The number of Internet users worldwide now exceeds 1.5 billion people. That’s right. Billion with a B.

More than 250 million of those users are in North America alone. It’s intimidating to think about connecting with all those people. No wonder so many authors get frustrated and feel overwhelmed when it comes to promoting themselves online.

Have no fear. You don’t have to reach all those people. You don’t even have to reach all book lovers online. If you try, you’ll never reach your goals and will curse me and anyone who’s ever been associated with the Internet — including Al Gore.

Key insight: To successfully promote your book, you need to start a relationship with only a small sliver of the total number of people online. Think about these numbers: If you could reach just one-hundredth of one percent of those 1.5 billion people, you’d have 150,000 potential buyers and fans. That’s a lot of people!

Consider my own position in the book publishing world. I am not a best-selling author in the traditional, New York Times bestseller list mode of defining success. I am not a household name. Far from it. Most people have never heard of me and never will. I am not famous by all the old standards. But I am fairly well-known to a select group of people: primarily, independent musicians. As of this writing, I have more than 15,000 people in my database — a combination of paying customers and people who subscribe to my various free email lists.

Among these people you’ll find everything from casual readers to hardcore fans. The numbers aren’t staggering by “industry” standards, but they are plenty big enough to allow me to make a good living doing something I love. Woudln’t you like to do the same thing?

Conclusion: Don’t try to be all things to all people. Don’t attempt to reach a wide section of the online population. It’s not all about huge numbers.

Your objective is to focus your limited time and energy on the web sites, ezines, and online forums where the people most likely to be attracted to your book hang out.

The Who, What, Where, and Why of Christian Book Promotion & Marketing

So, do you think every Christian needs to read your book? If you do, let us stop for a moment and get real. If you think your book is going to end up in WalMart, on Oprah, and on the NY Times Bestseller List…really, I hate to rain on your parade, but you really are setting yourself up for a lot of disappointment. It will help from the start to have realistic expectations and recognize clearly who your real market is. You must ask your self these defining questions…who, what and where? Then you must prove the why.

If you cannot narrow down your who into a specific people group, the narrower the better, the more difficult you will find marketing and promoting your book.


If your who is all Christian, all women, all men, or all teens, then we’ve got a problem. Your goal should be to target your message to a more specific people group, like:

New moms
Single moms
People in sales
Military wives
Cancer survivors
Christian writers
The grieving
Bereavement counselors
Child abuse survivors
Teens struggling with addictions
Women struggling with eating disorders
Christian counselors
Runners or hikers
Pastors or church leaders
Wives of veterans
Parents of terminally ill children
Senior citizens
Stay at home moms
Dog lovers
Cat lovers
And so on

The more clearly you can define your market, the easier it will be to find ways to advertise and promote to them.

If you are a fiction writer, make sure you include an issue in your story. Do not just have your main character become a Christian, but create someone struggling with abortion, infertility, domestic violence, infidelity, prodigal children, AIDS, homosexuality, etc. This will help you niche market your fiction title much easier since there are many support groups in the church and secular world reaching out to those dealing with issues, giving you a greater potential reading audience, again, because it is targeted.


Once you’ve determined the who and hopefully narrowed down your market to a niche group of potential readers, it is time to take a look at the what:

What magazines or newsletters or newspapers or catalogs might they read?
What radio stations do they listen to?
What TV shows do they watch?
What websites do they visit?
What keywords are they typing into an internet search engine?
What blogs do they read?

These days you see magazines, catalogs, websites and newsletters targeted for specific people groups. Many support groups have newsletters to keep in touch with their membership and typically the cost to advertise is low. Also, the chances of getting your book reviewed are much better in this type of publication than in a huge, well known publication…especially if your book offers great benefit to their readers.

All too often, authors gravitate towards the well known, full color, slick magazines like Christianity Today, Discipleship Journal, Charisma and the like. But beware…to advertise in these publications is not only extremely expensive, but typically very unproductive because the audience is so broad. You could easily spend thousands of dollars and get about as much return as flushing your money down the toilet would!

Take a few moments and come up with a list of keywords that relate to your topic. Then go to a few different search engines (;; etc.) and type in each one of the keywords on your list. You will be amazed at all the resources you will find on the internet…and many of them are looking for important books like yours to add to their list of links and recommended reading.

The essential opportunities to look for are resources that are focused on meeting the needs of your particular people group. Whether it is a daily or weekly radio or TV show, a catalog, or newsletter, or an e-zine, blog or website, do some research to see what you can find that is dedicated to your prospective readers. Those are the kinds of websites, publications and media resources that you will want to prayerfully add to your marketing plan.


So where are you going to find these prospective buyers? Another reason to get as specific as possible is that you will find that the more specific the people group is, the easier it will be to find events and happenings where they might gather. Whether it’s in cyberspace, or in your physical locale, people who share similar interests or challenges tend to gather on a regular basis. This is good news for you if your book is a resource that will meet their needs.


Message boards
Chat groups
Opt-in newsletters
Targeted websites
Social networks (;, etc.)
Web Conferences


Support groups
Seminars and conferences
Bible Studies
Book Clubs
Conventions (annual, regional, etc.)
Civic groups
Monthly membership meetings
Christian workers conferences
Christian Education conventions
Street Fairs / Festivals

You’ve zeroed in on your niche market, but now begs the question…why should anyone buy your book? What do you have to offer them?

At this point the best thing you could do is get some valuable feedback. Get a group of your supporters together for a creative inspiration session. Brainstorm a list of places where you can find those who need to hear your message. While you’re at it, ask your focus group these important questions:

What does your book offer?
What problem does it help the reader solve?

Spend some additional time listing all the benefits of the message and then take a break. After a snack, come back together and go over the list, highlighting the most compelling and exciting benefits. These are the ones you will want to use in your sales copy in advertising, back cover copy, and a short description for a catalog.


The truth is, people are selfish. That’s our sinful nature and there’s no getting around it…that said, most don’t really care why you wrote your book, what they really want to know is what is in it for them. Why should they take the time to read what you have to say?

Hopefully you’ve already gone before the Lord to make sure your message is His message, getting rid of anything that draws attention to yourself and embellishing whatever glorifies the Lord. With that done, you need to clearly and articulately encapsulate the benefit your book offers your reader.

If you cannot come up with sales copy of less than 40 words, then you might be in trouble. Let’s face it, people are busy. If you meet someone in an elevator; you don’t have 15 minutes to tell them about your book…you need a sound byte…a “bottom line” describing the problem that exists and the solution you offer.

You should be able to share your sales copy (or “elevator speech”) one on one in 30 seconds or less. You’ve got to be able to communicate what’s in it for the reader and be ready to expound on that as the opportunity arises. Just make sure your copy sounds natural when you say it…if it is too flowery or technical it will sound canned. It needs to be natural yet compelling to those who hear it without so many words that your listener gets lost.

As you consider the troubles you help others conquer, as a Christian writer, you are able to offer a real and enduring solution for the trials of this life. It is true that the solution is surrendering ones life fully to Jesus and becoming a disciple whose only goal is to do His will, but that does not necessarily mean that the Lord is going to solve all of our problems and we will never have to suffer.

Readers are tired of trite, superficial answers to the challenges of this life. We must, as Christian writers, give them an opportunity to go deeper and experience true life by the power of the Holy Spirit as the only solution to the issues they face.

So what are you helping your reader to overcome? Depression? Loneliness? Abuse? Unforgiveness? Anger? Betrayal or infidelity? Fear of the future? Grief over the loss of a loved one? Make sure you use this information in the back cover copy and all advertising and sales material so that your potential readers will relate based on their felt needs and see that you may have some answers for them.

In conclusion, by clearly determining who your market is, what type of media they prefer, where they congregate with others, and why they should buy your book, you have the basics that you’ll need for success. Now you can create and launch a successful marketing campaign to get your message into the hands of those who need to read it.

Using Internet Media for Book Promotions

Your job as an author does not end with just writing books alone. You would need to work with the publishers and market your book too. Marketing will involve extensive media coverage through all mediums using audio, video and print media. You would need to be connected to the readers through social media network sites, blogs, forums, twitter besides being publicly seen to be promoting your book through various inaugural functions and book reading sessions etc.

There is no single channel of communication that is favored by the audience. Each one has a different preference ranging from audio to video advertisements. Some like to read articles in newspaper and magazines while many like to be a part of the blogs, forums and social networking sites like Twitter.

Therefore to be able to communicate with your audience, you would have to reach them through their preferred channel of communication.

Naturally when it comes to Internet media, Twitter would be the best choice amongst social networking sites to promote your book. Here are a few things that you could do to promote your book on twitter:

1. Hold Book Release and Signing Function. Publish the details of the event well in advance on twitter and include all details of the venue, time etc. If possible give link to the venue site to make it easy for people to get all information. Everyone loves to buy the new book and get it autographed by the author.

2. One way of connecting with your readers and the audience is by letting them see you as the person you are. They will naturally be interested in knowing you better as a person and would love to read some tidbits of information regarding your personal life or your experiences while writing the book etc. It makes sense to be able to share with them your thoughts and inspirations that led you to writing the book.

3. Another useful method would be to engage in what is called micro blogging, where in you can publish some small extracts of the book which when read will prompt readers to access your website through the shortcut link that you provide on the blog page and perhaps buy the book online from your website.

Now you know that is to be done, go ahead and use the Internet and Twitter to your maximum advantage. You will instantly be connected with your readers and they will lap up the book as soon as it is available in the market.

Book Promotion Mistakes – Do You Make These Three Profit-Sucking Mistakes In Your Book Promotion?

If you have a book or e-book that you need to sell you may already realise that books do not sell themselves. In this article I show you how to avoid the three biggest mistakes that will prevent you successfully promoting your book.

Mistake 1 – Not Having A Dedicated Blog

You’ve done all the hard work in creating your book. So you already have all the content you need. To not take the extra baby step of publishing extracts from your book as blog posts is madness.

What To Do Instead

It’s so easy and cheap to get a blog these days. You can get someone from Fiverr to install WordPress for you for $5. So there is no excuse, even if you lack the technical know-how to set up a blog yourself. Your book is a ready source of already-written articles – so put them to use! Get your WordPress blog installed this week and start posting extracts from your book to your blog. Simply take content from your book in 200-300 word sections and publish them to your blog.

Mistake 2 – Ignoring Article Marketing As A Promotion Mechanism

Many people who go as far as creating an e-book from their physical book will neglect to post book extracts to article marketing websites.

What To Do Instead

Post extracts from your book to article marketing sites. It’s free, you retain copyright and you can benefit from the significant amount of traffic that these sites attract. is the largest and most established article directory on the internet. It’s also the most professionally run article site. The fact that all articles are reviewed by human editors ensures their quality standards. If you want your book extracts to be read, there can hardly be a better place for them so be seen. Ensure you include a link back to where you’re your book is sold in a resource box at the end of your article, you are very likely to get many visitors to your book’s sales page. The more book extracts you submit as articles, the more links you will get to your sales page. Which means better search engine ranking and more eyeballs for your sales page.

Mistake 3 – Treating Book Promotion As A One-off Activity

Zig Ziglar was once quoted as saying “Motivation, like bathing, doesn’t last – that’s why I recommend it daily.” The same is true of promotion – the effects of promotion do not last, and that’s why you should consider carrying it out daily.

What To Do Instead

Just taking one promotion action, one time is not enough. To be effective, book promotion involves taking consistent actions over time. I recommend allocating a 90 day timescale in which to promote your book. It’s consistent, simple promotion actions done repeatedly that will be the most effective. If you want to turbo-charge your book promotion and avoid these three profit-sucking mistakes, use the recommendations I’ve shared in this article.